Monthly Archives: March 2011

Photography- 1827

Daguerreoptype Image:

The Daguerreotype process was invented by Louis Daguerre. It was better than previous methods because it worked faster, previous images had to be exposed for up to 8 hours. However, the process could still not be performed by the masses. Another disadvantage to this process was that the images it produced were delicate and could not be duplicated.

Calotype Image:

The Calyotype process was invented by William Fox Tablot. A major advantage to this process was that an unlimited amount of duplicates could be produced from the negative, which is why this process is the basis of our modern photographic process. A disadvantage this process was the quality of the image was poor.

Wet Collodion Process Image:

The Wet Collodion process was invented by Frederick Archer. To produce an image, the glass plates used only had to be exposed to light for two or three seconds. This process was also much cheaper than previous processes. A major disadvantage was that the glass plates had to be exposed to light quickly, while the plates were still wet with collodion.

Dry Plate Process Image:

The Dry Plate Process was invented by Richard Maddox. It’s major advantage was that it was much more convenient than the Wet Collodion Process since the plates did not have to be wet when exposed. It’s disadvantage was the glass was fragile and still was not accessible to ordinary users.

First Human in a Photo:

Louis Daguerre is credited with taking the first photo of humans.

Photographic Emulsion is a light-sensitive material spread on an object.

George Eastman named his phtographic company Kodak because he thought K was a powerful letter, the name was short, easy to pronounce, and would not be confused with anything else.

Instant film, commonly referred to as Polaroid photos, is made by transfering dyes from negatives to positive using a chemical reaction. Unlike other cameras, the film in Polaroid cameras already contain the chemicals need to make the reaction happen.



The purpose of this assignment was to make a photostrip of a sequence of actions employing the rule of thirds, perspective, and leading lines. I chose to show a golf swing.

The Linotype Machine – 1886

Shole’s typewriter:

Mergenthaler’s Linotype Machine:

Linotype & Operator:

The typewriter is an important part of our history because without it, we would not have modern day computers. The invention of the typewriter was important because using it was faster than writing by hand which allowed for the newspaper industry to be revolutionized. While Americans may think of typewriters as things of the past, they are the most common method of typing in 3rd world countries.

Typesetting is making text material by using type.

The linograph was the most importance advance since moveable type because it allowed a small number of operators to set type for more pages on a daily basis, which allowed newspapers to become longer and thus more informative.

One of the major differences between the linograph keyboard and the modern day keyboard was the absence of the shift key. This meant that the linograph keyboard had to have separate black keys for lowercase letters and white keys for uppercase letters. The keyboard also had blue keys for punctuation, digits, small capital letters and fixed width spaces.  The keys were arranged in order of letter frequencies as opposed to the modern day QWERTY arrangement. In total, there were 90 keys on the linograph. Modern day keyboards range, but most have a little over 100 keys.


Assignment #6

The purpose of this assignment was to illustrate a word expressively using relief printing.

The Gutenberg Press- 1440

The Gutenberg press worked by a metal moveable type being pressed down onto paper using oil-based inks. This method allowed for uniform characters across the entire book.  This is an example of relief printing.

Moveable type is the system of printing that uses moveable components to reproduce the same elements of a document consistently.

Porus printing, also known as screen or ink printing, ink is brushed onto a screen which is on some object, usually paper but it can also be metals, glass, or a textile. Intaglio printing, also called gravue printing, works by etching images below the surface and filling the engraving with ink. Excess ink is then removed before transferring the remaining ink to it’s final medium. Lithography uses stones and metal plates that are kept wet with water. The ink is placed on the wet plates and then special paper is placed on top of the stone before being run through the press. After it is run through the press, the paper is taken off and the stone or metal is left with the image. Offset lithography uses digitally made metal plates that are inked. The ink is then transferred to a rubber cylinder and then finally to paper.

One major improvement on Guttenberg’s orginal printing press is the speed of impressions. By 1940, printing presses could do over 3500 impressions/ hour. Today’s printing presses follow the same basic principles, but are much more automated.

offset lithography press:

CYMK is a four-color process method of printing that is based on the subtraction principle that states if all colors are removed, only white remains. It works by combining cyan, yellow, magenta, and black to create the desired colors. These colors are layered onto one another, usually in that order.

Communication Trends & Type

The way people communicate has changed dramatically over the last century. One way this can be seen is through computer technology, including Instant Messaging, e-mail, Tweets, and Facebook. All these mediums allow people to communicate with each other in a quick, efficient way- a way that doesn’t call for extensive use of proper grammar or much thinking.

While type was once a thing of long labor, where one mistake may cost hours (think typewriter), a mistake in typing is now easily fixable- the magical delete button. The fastest typer is recorded as typing 216 words/ minute- a feat that would have been unachievable on a typewriter due to the high probability of an error.

With type becoming so easy to use, people put considerable less thought into their communication. The popular site Twitter has millions of followers sharing their thoughts in 140 characters or less. 140 characters or less? Can thoughts even be communicated in such a limited format- why yes. Just ask Charlie Sheen, whose 140 character rants gained him 1 million followers in just 24 hours.  Type is on its way to becoming just another mindless habit used to receive information how we like it- fast and brief.


DeThomasis, Sarah. “How Charlie Sheen Got 1 Million Twitter Followers in 24 Hours (and What We Can Learn from It) « Social Marketing Services | Vitrue.” Social Media Management | Facebook for Business | Vitrue. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <;.

“Words per Minute.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <;.



A ligature occurs when multiple units of a language, called graphemes, are combined as one. Ligatures have been in use for a long time, dating back to the Sumerian’s combining characters together. Over time, many of these ligatures became their own character. Today, ligatures are commonly used for stylistic purposes.